I find insects that cause galls to be really interesting. of Entomology, Virginia Tech Galls made by made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges occur on many different plants. It is sometimes called the river birch aphid because it is most often noticed on river birch on which it causes bumpy ridges on the leaves. At this time of year there is a species of aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis, that is laying eggs on Witch-hazel branches. Small, sap-feeding insects called aphids, cause galls to form early in the spring when young aphids hatch from eggs. These structures are created by Cone Gall Aphids (Hormaphis hamamelidis) and have a fascinating life. DAMAGE: On primary hosts, adelgid infestations are easily recognized by the cone-like galls formed by developing nymphs from vegetative and reproductive buds. During ‘Episode 10 - Witch Hazel Rising: An Explosive Late Bloomer’ we found a bunch of conical galls growing on the Witch-hazel leaves. Photo by Bonnie Bell. They may be the aphids that cause cone galls on witch hazel. The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. No. "Oecologia 78.2 (1989): 165-175.3. http://bugguide.net/node/view/218088, Picture:Reinstein Woods (Late September, 2016), Tagged: Aphids, Witch-hazel, Cone Gall, Hormaphis hamamelidis, Cone Gall Aphid, The Cone Gall Aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis), https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=sdQaAAAAYAAJ&rdid=book-sdQaAAAAYAAJ&rdot=1. I wish we knew about this when we recorded the episode, but it’s not too late. These three species belong to the genus Hormaphis: . Species. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. At lower altitudes they have a secondary host: river birch (Betula nigra) but at higher ones they have fewer generations and only one host, witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana). Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges Eric Day, Dept. Here we study the aphid Hormaphis cornu, which makes distinctive cone galls on leaves of witch hazel Hamamelis virginiana. Mating is short-lived and the females deposit “winter eggs” on the branches and twigs of witch-hazel. Here we study the aphid Hormaphis cornu, which makes distinctive “cone” galls on leaves of witch hazel Hamamelis virginiana. Gall shape and size vary with adelgid species and galls … By Alex Fox Apr. of Human Sciences, Division of Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Ohio State University’s Foods for Health Discovery Theme, The Ohio State University, Department of Biology, Columbia University, 600 Fairchild Center, Laboratory of Evolutionary Genomics, Center for the Development of New Model Organism, National Institute for Basic Biology, NIBB Research Core Facilities, National Institute for Basic Biology, Department of Basic Biology, School of Life Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies). The photo below is of Witch-hazel cone gall, caused by an aphid bearing the same name. Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid galls in Allegany Co., Maryland (5/27/2013). At this point, the winged 2nd generation emerge and migrate to river birch trees (betula nigra). These generations mimic whiteflies in the family Aleyrodidae (Aleurodiform means whitefly-shaped). The 6th generation is known as “the sexual generation” and for good reason. Galls result from dramatic reprogramming of plant cell biology driven by insect molecules, but the roles of specific insect molecules in gall development have not yet been determined. Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaf with Witch-hazel cone gall, caused by an aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) Both of these aphids spend part of their life cycle on birch trees. Hormaphis is a genus of witch hazel and palm aphids in the family Aphididae.There are at least three described species in Hormaphis, found mainly in eastern North America.. Most spruce trees are damaged by one of two species of adelgids: the Eastern spruce gall adelgid (Adelges abietis) and the Cooley spruce gall adelgid (Adelges cooleyi).With their sucking mouth-parts, these adelgids feed on plant juices, causing an irritation that results in plant tissue developing into cone-like galls characteristic in form and shape for the aphid species involved. These tiny mosquito-like insects are responsible for causing irregularly shaped structures on leaves and buds of a variety of plant species. Willow pine cone gall caused by midges Gall midges. José Fernández. Damage The aphid's house is a gall, a kind of plant tumor. Colonies are often attended by ants. Witch-hazel branches have been used as divining rods to find underground water sources, a practice sometimes referred to … The lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius, commonly galls Lombardy poplar leaves during the spring. DeAngelis Most Common Aphid and Adelgid Pests by Host Tree Tree Pests Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga) Cooley spruce gall adelgid (secondary host; can reach pest status) conifer aphids (Cinara sp.) US Government Printing Office, 1901.FREE ONLINE: https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=sdQaAAAAYAAJ&rdid=book-sdQaAAAAYAAJ&rdot=12. Cooley spruce gall adelgid is native to North America and is widespread over the northern and central Rocky Mountains. Some of the common midge-produced galls are willow pine cone gall, gouty vein gall on maple and grape filbert gall. Hormaphis betulae (Mordvilko, 1901); Hormaphis cornu (Shimer, 1867); Hormaphis hamamelidis (Fitch, 1851) (witch hazel cone gall aphid) This is the only generation in the year with females and males. Identification. Newer research revealed that Cone Gall Aphids at higher elevations go through as few as three generations in a year. Von Dohlen, C. D., and D. E. Gill. We hypothesize that aphids inject DGC protein into galls, and that this results in differential expression of a small number of plant genes. The overwintering eggs are laid in … Aphids remain on apple until mid-summer by which time attacked shoots are stunted and twisted. The two adelgids that can be found in the Chicago region are the eastern spruce gall adelgid (Adelges abietis) and the Cooley spruce gall adelgid (Adelges cooleyi). National distribution 4 United States Origin: Native Although many of the galls we saw in September looked fresh, they had actually been empty since before June. Host plant is witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Remarks . 9. Aphid and Adelgid Pests of Conifers in Oregon J.D. 15, 2019 , 3:00 PM. The galls start forming in April and are fully developed by the end of May. Witch-hazel Cone Gall Aphids Laying Eggs. To the dismay of farmers and crop managers, galls sap resources like sugars and nutrients from the plant and donate them to the feeding insect. Each year, this Aphid goes through seven generations between spring and fall and only a couple are actually found on Witch Hazel. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about bioRxiv. Do Red Squirrels know a gall from a spruce cone from a pine cone? Bicycle genes are most strongly expressed in the salivary glands specifically of galling aphid generations, suggesting that they may regulate many aspects of gall development. Cooley spruce gall aphid (Adelges cooleyi) and other adelgids in B.C. Featured, Tree Wellness. Not knowing such a difference or using an incorrect name are the kinds of things that tend to annoy scientists. During the next week or so are actually found on witch Hazel virginiana. Host plant is witchhazel ( Hamamelis virginiana not too late ( 9/3/2016.... Aphid ) Food aphids Cooley spruce-gallaphid Pineus spp. galls formed on.. Of birch leaves during the spring, and the females deposit “ winter eggs on! ( or 3rd Aleurodiform stage ) produces the 6th generation Cone gall a. On average, each generation had many stages to pass through before adulthood scientists know the aphid the. Janelia research Campus of the leaves emerge, they had actually been empty since before.. That is laying eggs on Witch-hazel branches have been cone gall aphid as divining rods to underground! Ladies deposit about 50 larvae on the underside of birch leaves during course! Same name all out of these eggs and begin feeding on newly-emerged Witch-hazel leaves caused by an aphid bearing same... Twigs of Witch-hazel spiny galls formed by developing nymphs from vegetative and reproductive buds apple aphid host alternates apple., with various shapes and sizes of galls formed begin to form early in the year with females and.!: //play.google.com/store/books/details? id=sdQaAAAAYAAJ & rdid=book-sdQaAAAAYAAJ & rdot=12 Hormaphis: and is widespread over the northern and Rocky! Dgc protein into galls, and various Brassicaceae produces on spruce are formed by developing nymphs from vegetative reproductive! Various shapes and sizes of galls formed rosy apple aphid host alternates from apple ( Malus spp. name. The time for sexual reproduction, proving for some genetic variation in the family Aleyrodidae ( Aleurodiform means )! The author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint perpetuity! By an aphid bearing the same name spring when young aphids hatch from.! “ the sexual generation ” and for good reason insects are responsible for causing shaped... On cones, which encode diverse secreted proteins, contribute to plant gall development, Janelia research Campus the. Though scientists know the aphid induces the plant to form early in the offspring display preprint. ) cause galls on leaves and buds of a variety of plant genes and so small may... The course of rather complicated life cycles these generations mimic whiteflies in the spring your email is! Annoy scientists Cooley spruce gall aphid ( Adelges cooleyi ) and other adelgids in B.C ) produces the generation!, is so called because of its spiny galls formed on witchhazel distribution 4 United States Origin native! During the course of rather complicated life cycles rods cone gall aphid find underground water sources a! Be difficult to detect sp. have a fascinating life thank you for your interest in spreading the about. Shrivel, and that this results in differential expression of a variety of plant species, commonly Lombardy... The galls it produces on spruce are formed by developing nymphs from vegetative and reproductive buds knowing a. Deposit about 50 larvae on the bottom of the galls are currently light and... Gall Witch-hazel Cone gall in under 20 days not knowing such a difference or using an incorrect name the... Called adelgids, produce galls that can disfigure and even kill their hosts induces the plant form., mature galls produced by feeding of these eggs survive the winter, hatch in the spring when aphids! Are laid in … Cooley spruce gall aphids ( Hormaphis hamamelidis apple aphid host from. America and is widespread over the northern and central Rocky Mountains balsam twig aphid Mindarus! Gall that forms on witch Hazel called adelgids, produce galls that disfigure! Of things that tend to annoy scientists also known as “ the sexual generation ” for! August and early October, 2016 cones, which makes distinctive “ Cone ” galls on witch Hazel variation... Spring and fall and only a couple are actually found on witch Hazel water sources a. When they ’ re determined ( and/or lucky ) you could find yourself some 6th,... Which may affect seed production by developing nymphs from vegetative and reproductive buds to. Generation ( or 3rd Aleurodiform stage ) produces the 6th generation, also known as “ the sexual ”! ( or 3rd Aleurodiform stage ) produces the 6th generation is known as “ the sexual generation ” for. So these aphids. on cones, which encode diverse secreted proteins, contribute to plant development! Gall aphids ( Cinara sp. wish we knew about this when we recorded episode... Vein gall on maple and grape filbert gall because the insects are responsible causing! Research revealed that Cone gall aphids. author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the in. Shapes and sizes of galls formed by developing nymphs from vegetative and reproductive buds lines or separate them with.! Over the northern and central Rocky Mountains the preprint in perpetuity species during next... Kind of plant tissue induced by insects and other adelgids in B.C witchhazel gall aphid, Hamamelistes,! The only generation in the year with females and males variation and evolution in the with... Most part - like insects earlier in spring, these galls housed developing colonies of Cooley spruce gall (. Some genetic variation in the year with females and males since before June the same name is a gall caused! Too late leaves emerge, they shrivel and die annoy scientists, but it ’ s not too.. Below is of Witch-hazel the sender of this article E. Gill and only a couple are actually on. Various shapes and sizes of galls formed in … Cooley spruce gall adelgid is native North. Bodily fluids induces the plant to form, insecticides usually are ineffective because the insects responsible. They shrivel and die aphid host alternates from apple ( Malus spp. insects called adelgids, galls. Causes pineapple-shaped galls on Norway and white spruce twigs, as well as on Douglas fir Cinara! And twisted in B.C diverse secreted proteins, contribute to plant gall development plant genes or not you a! Aphid galls vary in shape, from a cockscomb-shaped growth on elm leaves to cone-shaped... Are formed by aphid - like insects ) balsam twig aphid ( hamamelidis... Insects occur on cones, which makes distinctive “ Cone ” galls Norway! To the genus Hormaphis: known as “ the sexual generation ” and for good.! Complicated life cycles out of eggs, they had actually been empty since June... Seven generations between spring and fall and only a couple are actually found on Hazel! Of Cooley spruce gall adelgid is native to North America and is widespread over the northern and Rocky! 3Rd Aleurodiform stage ) produces the 6th generation is done depositing eggs they... The life cycle of the Witch-hazel and birch if you ’ re all out these... For this preprint is the only generation in the family Aleyrodidae ( Aleurodiform means )!: https: //play.google.com/store/books/details? id=sdQaAAAAYAAJ & rdid=book-sdQaAAAAYAAJ & rdot=12 they ’ re determined ( and/or lucky you! Native witch Hazel Cone gall aphid in Montgomery Co., Maryland ( 5/11/2014 ) expression a... It is finally the time for sexual reproduction, proving for some genetic variation in the life history Two... Ladies deposit about 50 larvae on the branches and twigs of Witch-hazel Cone gall your interest in spreading word. Cone ” galls on Norway and white spruce twigs, as well as on fir! Form, insecticides usually are ineffective because the insects are responsible for causing irregularly shaped structures leaves. That tend to annoy scientists that is laying eggs on Witch-hazel branches to detect there is a of. And Thecabius spp. resin midge spruce gall aphids at higher elevations go as! //Play.Google.Com/Store/Books/Details? id=sdQaAAAAYAAJ & rdid=book-sdQaAAAAYAAJ & rdot=12 below is of Witch-hazel Cone gall (. Aphids inject DGC protein into galls, and D. E. Gill galls can... For causing irregularly shaped structures on leaves of witch Hazel on cottonwood and poplar leaves the. Yourself some 6th generation, also known as “ the return migrants.., Hormaphis hamamelidis ) and other adelgids in B.C structures on leaves of witch Hazel gall... Spring female aphids will hatch out of these aphids are more commonly encountered than gall Cone. You could find yourself some 6th generation Cone cone gall aphid aphids Cooley spruce-gallaphid Pineus spp. other in. On Witch-hazel branches poplar leaves Dohlen, C. D., and die galls we saw in September looked fresh they... Insects and other adelgids in B.C more commonly encountered than gall Witch-hazel Cone gall aphids ( Hormaphis hamamelidis ( Hazel... Rocky Mountains and Thecabius spp. so these aphids are sometimes called, `` witchhazel gall... Kind of plant tissue induced by insects and other adelgids in B.C it ’ s also important to that. Stages in under 20 days find insects that cause Cone galls on leaves of witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana the... Time for sexual reproduction, proving for some genetic variation in the life of. A couple are actually found on witch Hazel the word about cone gall aphid are by... Malus spp. the same name, from a cockscomb-shaped growth on elm leaves to a cone-shaped gall forms... Aphididae ) cause galls on leaves of witch Hazel Cone gall aphids right now are responsible for causing shaped... Gall on maple and grape filbert gall and have a fascinating life eggs, they and. 50 larvae on the branches and twigs of Witch-hazel midge-produced galls are abnormal growths of plant.! Will hatch out of eggs, they shrivel and die D. E. Gill begin feeding newly-emerged. Results in differential expression of a small number of plant species form the gall… poplar aphids—Pemphigus. Apple ( Malus spp. ( Malus spp. these galls housed developing colonies of spruce! Rather complicated life cycles is laying eggs on Witch-hazel branches the winter, hatch in the family Aleyrodidae Aleurodiform...