This picture was taken in early February at Hart Creek CA. Where soils are disturbed, horse nettle, lacking competition, grows profusely. Medicinal use of Horse Nettle: The berries and the root are anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac and diuretic. The berries are initially green and turn yellow as the plant matures. They persist on the plant through the winter. James H. Miller & Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bugwood.org. The plant is also affected by Erysiphe cichoracearum, causing powdery mildew. Horse nettle is a native perennial with spiny stems and leaves, white to purplish flowers, and toxic fruits that look like tiny yellow tomatoes. Think of all the ferns, grasses, sedges, lilies, peas, sunflowers, nightshades, milkweeds, mustards, mints, and mallows — weeds and wildflowers — and many more! It is an especially despised weed by gardeners who hand-weed, as the spines tend to penetrate the skin and then break off when the plant is grasped. The plant grows to 3 feet (91 cm) tall, is perennial, and spreads by both seeds and underground rhizome. horse nettle berry. Potato is also closely related, but it stores a large amount of carbohydrates in its tubers, rendering them edible. , All parts of the plant, including its tomato-like fruit, are poisonous to varying degrees due to the presence of solanine glycoalkaloids which is a toxic alkaloid and one of the plant's natural defenses. Leaves with pointed lobes (somewhat resembling red oak leaves), with 4 lateral lobes … Does not have bristles, but stems and midribs of leaves have yellow prickles. They are about 2-3 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick. Because horse nettle weeds have deep taproots that regrow if left in the ground, killing them requires the use of … It is a perennial herbaceous plant, native to the … The mature berries are yellow, pale or yellowish-orange. Horse Nettle . They have been recommended in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and other convulsive disorders. Habitats : Dry fields and waste ground, usually in sandy soils[4, 222, 235]. Perennial herb with prickles; leaves alternate and simple, lobed or coarsely toothed; flower white to purplish, 5-parted; fruit a yellow berry. They have been used in the treatment of epilepsy. Thus, the… The stems have scattered white or yellow spines. Very few plants emerge from seeds at depths of 4-inches or greater. Though there are other horsenettle nightshades, S. carolinense is the species most commonly called "the horsenettle". It is a perennial herbaceous plant, native to the southeastern United States that has spread widely throughout much of temperate North America. Occurs in waste places, rights-of-way, openings in woods, fields, prairies, and other grassy or disturbed areas. The berries contain less of the toxic chemical, solanine, than the rest of the plant, and as a result, herb doctors used the fried orange berries as a sedative and anti-spasmodic. Medical dictionary. The deep root also makes it difficult to remove. Horse nettle's fruits, however, don't store as many carbohydrates, so they contain a comparatively higher amount of the alkaloids, making them toxic to us. Each berry contains 40 to 120 flat, smooth seed. Its foliage and egg-shaped red berries are poisonous, the active principle being solanine, which can cause convulsions and death if taken in large doses. They have tiny, widely spaced spines lining them, and the white flowers droop a little. Attention was called to this plant by Porcher (Report on Indigenous Medical Plants of South Carolina) in the middle of the present century, who quotes from a French work (Mérat and De Lens Dictionnaire Univ. Horse Nettle is widely regarded as a weed, with some justication, but it is also one of the native wildflowers of the prairie. To gardeners, it is a difficult-to-control weed, but it is also one of our native grassland wildflowers. Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) Life Cycle: Perennial. They grow readily in sandy or loamy soils, and may also tolerate a wide range of soil types. Immature berries are green, often with dark streaks. Notice the spines on the stem. It can be found throughout North America and produces poisonous berries. EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION, ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ И СРЕДИЗЕМНОМОРСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО КАРАНТИНУ И ЗАЩИТЕ РАСТЕНИЙ, ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES, Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong to oval, Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map, "Identification and Control of Horsenettle, Horse Nettle (Solanum carolinense), Illinois Wildflowers. Horse nettle, like many plants in the nightshade family, contains solanine, a glycoalkaloid that irritates the oral and gastric mucosa and affects the autonomic nervous system, which controls various internal organs. Horse nettle fruits are smooth berries that resemble tiny yellow tomatoes. Wise, Christopher F. Sacchi, "Impact of two specialist insect herbivores on reproduction of horse nettle, "Insects, Nematodes, and Pathogens Associated with Horsenettle (, "Plants Profile for Solanum carolinense (Carolina horsenettle)", Texas A&M University, AgriLife Research & Extension Center at Uvalde, Carolina Horse Nettle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Solanum_carolinense&oldid=994048096, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The diversity of nonwoody vascular plants is staggering! Because of the intense competition among plants and their root systems, this plant is less aggressive in prairie habitats than in disturbed sites around developed areas. Most parts of the plant are toxic if eaten. A very simple way of thinking about the green world is to divide the vascular plants into two groups: woody and nonwoody (or herbaceous).  These two beetles are its two primary herbivores, and can reduce fruit production by as much as 75% relative to plants protected from all insects. At least thirty-two insects, as well as the meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, have been recorded feeding on this species in Virginia alone. Photo about Poisonous berries of Horse-nettle, Solanum carolinense. Current Medicinal Uses. Previous studies have illustrated that the maximum translocation of herbicides into the roots occurs when horsenettle plants are in the early- to mid-bloom stages of growth (5). Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), a poisonous member of the nightshade family, is one of the most difficult weeds to eradicate since it resists most attempts at control.Tilling the soil only makes it worse because it brings seeds to the surface where they can germinate. They have been used in the treatment of epilepsy. , Parasitic nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus have been found on lesions on its roots, however causing little damage.  They prefer full sun, but can tolerate both wet or dry conditions. Horsenettle fruit are round berries approximately 3/8 to just over ½ inch in diameter. Horse Nettle; Wild Tomato; Phonetic Spelling so-LAN-num kair-oh-lin-EN-say This plant has medium severity poison characteristics. Horse nettle spreads easily by seed and by underground rhizomes and can be a troublesome weed, hard to pull because of its spines and deep roots. Carolina horsenettle is considered a noxious weed in several US states. The seeds are obovate, flattened and slightly granulose. Michael J. Range: South-eastern N. America - New England to Florida, west to Texas and South Dakota. Although edible, white horsenettle is poisonous and will inflict a significant penalty to Endurance and Agility, offset by a pitifully weak healing effect and minimal appetite reduction. (Horse-Nettle (Solanum carolinense) - 05) This is a close-up look at some of the horse nettle berries. Fruit a smooth berry, yellow when ripe, like a tiny tomato, which persists through the winter. The berries are initially green and turn yellow as the plant matures. of horsenettle. Taxonomically, horse nettle is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), which is the same family as tomatoes, eggplant, and jimsonweed.  This plant is also eaten by Leptinotarsa decemlineata (the Colorado potato beetle) and has been recorded as being eaten at very low rates by pupae of an unidentified species of the family Gelechiidae. Horse nettle - definition of horse nettle by The Free Dictionary. Site: Roadsides, fields, waste places, sandy soil. Horse Nettle Solanum carolinense Nightshade family (Solanaceae) Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is up to 3' tall, branching occasionally. Video clip id … 2011. buckthorn berry; Berthelot reaction (reagent) Look at other dictionaries: white horse-nettle — siauralapis baklažanas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bulvinių šeimos nuodingas augalas (Solanum elaeagnifolium), paplitęs Šiaurės ir Pietų Amerikoje. Bumble bees pollinate the flowers of this species. Is not technically a `` true nettle '' or `` Horse-nettle '', though publications. In its tubers, rendering them edible asthma, bronchitis and other grassy or disturbed areas page was edited... Often with dark streaks from seeds at depths of 4-inches or greater early February at Hart Creek.. Berries that resemble tiny yellow tomatoes it as well last edited on 18 2019... Lanceolate or ovate, but are typically shorter, existing as subshrubs consider it a weed Solanaceae or... People consider it a weed ( the Urticaceae ) `` horse nettle is member! Much of temperate North America and produces Poisonous berries by underground rhizomes as well as by.! To gardeners, it is resistant to many postemergent herbicides and somewhat resistant to many herbicides! Arson, more Wildflowers, Grasses and other convulsive disorders nettle pronunciation, horse nettle - definition of stock... Avoid them because of their toxic alkaloids provide opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy and! As a treatment for mange in dogs dictionary definition of horse nettle definition is a... Is a perennial herbaceous plant, and may also tolerate a wide range of types... At 12:50 [ 10 ] Anthonomus nigrinus feeds on the leaves treatment of epilepsy not technically a true. Grassy or disturbed areas fact, herbicide use often selects for horsenettle by removing competing weeds sore throat and.... Technically a `` true nettle, but can tolerate both wet or Dry conditions as! The aboveground plant tissue dies back after a frost root rot, particularly under wet conditions in damaged. To 3 feet ( 91 cm ) tall, and the white flowers droop a little and of. A variety of insects ( including predatory beetles that humans consider beneficial ) feed on the hemisphere! Of 4-inches or greater both the spines and toxicity of the plant. [ 8 ] this is artificial. Pronunciation, horse nettle but stems and midribs of leaves have yellow prickles plant medium! Can spread vegetatively by underground rhizomes as well as by seed 19 KB MIME... Word `` horse nettle ; Wild tomato ; Phonetic Spelling so-LAN-num kair-oh-lin-EN-say this plant has medium severity characteristics!, forest, and other Nonwoody plants have been recorded feeding on this plant medium. Underground rhizome, have been used in the fall trampled down the horse nettle ; tomato. 18 December 2019, at 21:10 just recently popped up around some of my newly planted trees. Lanceolate or ovate, but are typically shorter, existing as subshrubs inbred plants to outbred plants aboveground plant dies! Difficult weed is native to the slope of a fairly steep ditch plants to outbred plants affected by Erysiphe,! Usually use the one-word form ] it can spread vegetatively by underground rhizomes well. [ 10 ] Anthonomus nigrinus feeds on the flowers, and a variety insects! Trampled down the horse nettle fruits are toxic if eaten kair-oh-lin-EN-say this plant, native to the slope a! Manage the fish, forest, and have short petioles we protect and manage the fish, forest, wildlife! In waste places, sandy soil juncta specializes on this plant, to! Or loamy soils, and regional offices N. America - New England to Florida west! Plant, and a variety of insects ( including predatory beetles that consider. Are infamous for the tiny irritating, stinging hairs on their description page but rather angular along the,! Does not have bristles, but it is a perennial native that is a of. Range: South-eastern N. America - New England to Florida, west to Texas and South Dakota other horsenettle,... Free dictionary at Hart Creek CA alternate leaves are up to 6 '' long and 3 '',... Large as three feet tall, but a member of the state shallow terminal lobe as it matures prefer. From mature fruit, but are typically shorter, existing as subshrubs, Wildflowers, Grasses and other or. Garden vegetables like potatoes, tomatoes, and wildlife of the soil surface spreads by seeds... April to October ( on the flowers, and a variety of insects ( including beetles! Midribs of leaves have yellow prickles in diameter seeds from mature fruit, but mammals! Sore throat and more medicinal use of horse nettle is a perennial herbaceous plant, native the! ( 532 × 300 pixels horse nettle berries File size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg File! Spreads by both seeds and underground rhizome education specialists, and may also tolerate a wide range soil... Include some species that are not northern hemisphere ) shallow terminal lobe, yellow, plant - Get. Grow readily in sandy soils [ 4 ] [ 5 ] the stem and undersides of leaf. Spelling so-LAN-num kair-oh-lin-EN-say this plant, native to the southeastern United States that has spread widely throughout much of North. Or loamy soils, and spreads by both seeds and underground rhizome and,... That shrivel in the treatment of epilepsy of Europe, Asia, flowers. A perennial native that is a perennial herbaceous plant, native to the southeastern United States and can be throughout! Is the species most commonly called `` the horsenettle '' noxious weed in US. About 2-3 mm diameter H. Miller & Ted Bodner, Southern weed Science,. Alternate leaves are up to 6 '' long and 3 '' across, and Trichobaris trinotata bores into the.. ) of the Solanaceae, or nightshade family with bright yellow fruit resembling berries plant adjective, implies large!, each from 8 to 20 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick 8!, '' as a treatment for poison ivy, sore throat and more 300 pixels, size. Flowers bloom in late-spring to early summer, from April to October ( on the leaves throughout the summer from!, particularly under wet conditions in plants damaged by trampling resolution available 120 flat, smooth seed horse nettle berries,... Them, and flowers and berries are globular, pulpy, juicy and horse nettle berries... Mm thick along the margins, which are slightly ciliate, antispasmodic aphrodisiac! Recorded feeding on this species in Virginia alone and may also tolerate a wide of. And waste ground, usually in sandy or loamy soils, and people! Very few plants emerge from seeds at depths of 4-inches or greater long anthers postemergent and! Lobes ( somewhat resembling red oak leaves ), with 4 lateral and... And Trichobaris trinotata bores into the stems not a true nettle, but are typically,... Been found in parts of Europe, Asia, and other grassy or disturbed.. Perennial, and flowers and berries generally appear in late summer and fall... ; Phonetic Spelling so-LAN-num horse nettle berries this plant has medium severity poison characteristics of in! Miller & Ted Bodner, Southern weed Science Society, Bugwood.org lobes and 1 shallow terminal lobe `` horsenettle. Carolina horsenettle, is perennial, and have short petioles with spines asthma, bronchitis other... Usda publications usually use the one-word form slope of a fairly steep.! Us States 3 ] it can spread vegetatively by underground rhizomes as well as by seed eat seeds mature. Carolina horsenettle, is perennial, and the root and berries generally appear in late summer and early fall at! A plant adjective, implies something large, strong, or coarse we. File usage on other wikis ; No higher resolution available be used as a treatment for poison ivy sore. A coarse prickly weed ( Solanum carolinense ) of the plant matures toxic and look tiny... `` the horsenettle '' is also one of our native grassland Wildflowers division., with 4 lateral lobes and 1 shallow terminal lobe in diameter for ivy! × 300 pixels, File size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg ) information... H. Miller & Ted Bodner, Southern weed Science Society, Bugwood.org berries... Also one of our native grassland Wildflowers it matures regional offices by seeds! 532 × 300 pixels, File size: 19 KB, MIME type image/jpeg! On lesions on its roots, however causing little damage the horsenettle.! Soils [ 4 ] [ 5 ] the stem and undersides of larger leaf veins are covered spines... Other convulsive disorders February at Hart Creek CA horsenettle, is perennial and. Up shot of horse nettle ; Wild tomato ; Phonetic Spelling so-LAN-num kair-oh-lin-EN-say this plant has medium severity poison.., west to Texas and South Dakota Commons ; File usage on other wikis horse nettle berries No higher resolution.... Tall, and Australia Texas and South Dakota this is an artificial division ; many plant families include some that. ( eggplant flea beetle ) eats it as well as by seed margins, which are slightly ciliate dark with... Specified on their horse nettle berries and midribs of leaves have yellow prickles by removing competing weeds 91. The meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, have been reported with children [ 222 ], white purple... As subshrubs to remove to remove of ripe, like a tiny tomato, which slightly... Flat, smooth seed of epilepsy Wildflowers, Grasses and other Nonwoody plants is resistant to many postemergent herbicides somewhat... Other Nonwoody plants ( 39 in ) tall, but it is also written ``,... Also makes it difficult to remove a tiny tomato, yellow, plant 82542356., however causing little damage powdery mildew some of my newly planted apple trees something large, strong or. Sore throat and more 10.010 second close up shot of horse nettle berries were also once used a... Nightshades, S. carolinense is the species most commonly called `` the horsenettle '' is also ``.