This picture was taken in early February at Hart Creek CA. Where soils are disturbed, horse nettle, lacking competition, grows profusely. Medicinal use of Horse Nettle: The berries and the root are anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac and diuretic. The berries are initially green and turn yellow as the plant matures. They persist on the plant through the winter. James H. Miller & Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bugwood.org. The plant is also affected by Erysiphe cichoracearum, causing powdery mildew. Horse nettle is a native perennial with spiny stems and leaves, white to purplish flowers, and toxic fruits that look like tiny yellow tomatoes. Think of all the ferns, grasses, sedges, lilies, peas, sunflowers, nightshades, milkweeds, mustards, mints, and mallows — weeds and wildflowers — and many more! It is an especially despised weed by gardeners who hand-weed, as the spines tend to penetrate the skin and then break off when the plant is grasped. The plant grows to 3 feet (91 cm) tall, is perennial, and spreads by both seeds and underground rhizome. horse nettle berry. Potato is also closely related, but it stores a large amount of carbohydrates in its tubers, rendering them edible. [6], All parts of the plant, including its tomato-like fruit, are poisonous to varying degrees due to the presence of solanine glycoalkaloids which is a toxic alkaloid and one of the plant's natural defenses. Leaves with pointed lobes (somewhat resembling red oak leaves), with 4 lateral lobes … Does not have bristles, but stems and midribs of leaves have yellow prickles. They are about 2-3 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick. Because horse nettle weeds have deep taproots that regrow if left in the ground, killing them requires the use of … It is a perennial herbaceous plant, native to the … The mature berries are yellow, pale or yellowish-orange. Horse Nettle . They have been recommended in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and other convulsive disorders. Habitats : Dry fields and waste ground, usually in sandy soils[4, 222, 235]. Perennial herb with prickles; leaves alternate and simple, lobed or coarsely toothed; flower white to purplish, 5-parted; fruit a yellow berry. They have been used in the treatment of epilepsy. Thus, the… The stems have scattered white or yellow spines. Very few plants emerge from seeds at depths of 4-inches or greater. Though there are other horsenettle nightshades, S. carolinense is the species most commonly called "the horsenettle". It is a perennial herbaceous plant, native to the southeastern United States that has spread widely throughout much of temperate North America. Occurs in waste places, rights-of-way, openings in woods, fields, prairies, and other grassy or disturbed areas. The berries contain less of the toxic chemical, solanine, than the rest of the plant, and as a result, herb doctors used the fried orange berries as a sedative and anti-spasmodic. Medical dictionary. The deep root also makes it difficult to remove. Horse nettle's fruits, however, don't store as many carbohydrates, so they contain a comparatively higher amount of the alkaloids, making them toxic to us. Each berry contains 40 to 120 flat, smooth seed. Its foliage and egg-shaped red berries are poisonous, the active principle being solanine, which can cause convulsions and death if taken in large doses. They have tiny, widely spaced spines lining them, and the white flowers droop a little. Attention was called to this plant by Porcher (Report on Indigenous Medical Plants of South Carolina) in the middle of the present century, who quotes from a French work (Mérat and De Lens Dictionnaire Univ. Horse Nettle is widely regarded as a weed, with some justication, but it is also one of the native wildflowers of the prairie. To gardeners, it is a difficult-to-control weed, but it is also one of our native grassland wildflowers. Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) Life Cycle: Perennial. They grow readily in sandy or loamy soils, and may also tolerate a wide range of soil types. Immature berries are green, often with dark streaks. Notice the spines on the stem. It can be found throughout North America and produces poisonous berries. EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION, ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ И СРЕДИЗЕМНОМОРСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО КАРАНТИНУ И ЗАЩИТЕ РАСТЕНИЙ, ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES, Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong to oval, Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map, "Identification and Control of Horsenettle, Horse Nettle (Solanum carolinense), Illinois Wildflowers. Horse nettle, like many plants in the nightshade family, contains solanine, a glycoalkaloid that irritates the oral and gastric mucosa and affects the autonomic nervous system, which controls various internal organs. Horse nettle fruits are smooth berries that resemble tiny yellow tomatoes. Wise, Christopher F. Sacchi, "Impact of two specialist insect herbivores on reproduction of horse nettle, "Insects, Nematodes, and Pathogens Associated with Horsenettle (, "Plants Profile for Solanum carolinense (Carolina horsenettle)", Texas A&M University, AgriLife Research & Extension Center at Uvalde, Carolina Horse Nettle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Solanum_carolinense&oldid=994048096, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The diversity of nonwoody vascular plants is staggering! Because of the intense competition among plants and their root systems, this plant is less aggressive in prairie habitats than in disturbed sites around developed areas. Most parts of the plant are toxic if eaten. A very simple way of thinking about the green world is to divide the vascular plants into two groups: woody and nonwoody (or herbaceous). [10] These two beetles are its two primary herbivores, and can reduce fruit production by as much as 75% relative to plants protected from all insects. At least thirty-two insects, as well as the meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, have been recorded feeding on this species in Virginia alone. Photo about Poisonous berries of Horse-nettle, Solanum carolinense. Current Medicinal Uses. Previous studies have illustrated that the maximum translocation of herbicides into the roots occurs when horsenettle plants are in the early- to mid-bloom stages of growth (5). Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), a poisonous member of the nightshade family, is one of the most difficult weeds to eradicate since it resists most attempts at control.Tilling the soil only makes it worse because it brings seeds to the surface where they can germinate. They have been used in the treatment of epilepsy. [11], Parasitic nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus have been found on lesions on its roots, however causing little damage. [6] They prefer full sun, but can tolerate both wet or dry conditions. Horsenettle fruit are round berries approximately 3/8 to just over ½ inch in diameter. Horse Nettle; Wild Tomato; Phonetic Spelling so-LAN-num kair-oh-lin-EN-say This plant has medium severity poison characteristics. Horse nettle spreads easily by seed and by underground rhizomes and can be a troublesome weed, hard to pull because of its spines and deep roots. Carolina horsenettle is considered a noxious weed in several US states. The seeds are obovate, flattened and slightly granulose. Michael J. Range: South-eastern N. America - New England to Florida, west to Texas and South Dakota. Although edible, white horsenettle is poisonous and will inflict a significant penalty to Endurance and Agility, offset by a pitifully weak healing effect and minimal appetite reduction. (Horse-Nettle (Solanum carolinense) - 05) This is a close-up look at some of the horse nettle berries. Fruit a smooth berry, yellow when ripe, like a tiny tomato, which persists through the winter. The berries are initially green and turn yellow as the plant matures. of horsenettle. Taxonomically, horse nettle is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), which is the same family as tomatoes, eggplant, and jimsonweed. [9] This plant is also eaten by Leptinotarsa decemlineata (the Colorado potato beetle) and has been recorded as being eaten at very low rates by pupae of an unidentified species of the family Gelechiidae. 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